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Neonatal Med > Volume 17(2); 2010 > Article
Journal of the Korean Society of Neonatology 2010;17(2):161-167.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5385/jksn.2010.17.2.161    Published online November 15, 2010.
Acute Kidney Injury in the Newborn: Etiology, Pathophysiology and Diagnosis.
So Young Kim
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. sykimped@catholic.ac.kr
Abstract
Acute kidney injury (AKI), formerly referred to as acute renal failure (ARF) is defined as the sudden impairment of kidney function (estimated from the glomerular filtration rate [GFR]) that results in the lack of excretion of waste products. More than 30 definitions of AKI exist in the literature, most of which are based on serum creatinine. Lack of a uniform and multidimensional AKI definition has led to failure to recognize significant renal injury, delays in treatment, and inability to generalize single-study results. The RIFLE criteria were developed to standardize the diagnosis of ARF and in the process the term AKI has been proposed to encompass the entire spectrum of the syndrome from minor changes in renal function to requirement for renal replacement therapy. Large prospective studies are needed to test definitions and to better understand risk factors, incidence, independent outcomes, and mechanisms that lead to poor short- and long-term outcomes. Early biomarkers of AKI need to be explored in critically ill neonates.
Key Words: Acute kidney injury; Acute renal failure; Newborn; Etiology; Pathophysiology
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