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Research and
publication ethics

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For policies on research and publication ethics not stated in these instructions, please refer to the following: “Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals” (Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors, 2013,, “Guidelines on Good Publication” (Committee on Publication Ethics,, and “Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals” (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors [ICMJE], 2013, When faced with cases of suspected misconduct, act will be done according to the COPE guidelines and flowcharts.
A. Protection of human and animal rights
When reporting experiments that involved human subjects, it should be stated that the study was performed according to the Helsinki Declaration (adopted in 1964, amended in 2008) and approved by the Research Ethics Committee (REC) or the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the institution where the experiment was performed. Written informed consent should be obtained from all subjects. The editor of Neonatal Medicine may request copies of informed consent forms or IRB approval documents for clinical studies involving human subjects. For animal studies, a statement should be provided indicating that all experimental processes, such as the breeding and use of laboratory animals, were either (1) approved by the REC of the institution where the experiment was performed, (2) not in violation of the rules of the REC of the institution, or (3) compliant with the NIH’s Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources [ILAR], Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council [NRC], National Academic Press, 1996, 125 pp., Moreover, studies involving pathogens that require a high degree of biosafety should pass a review by the relevant Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC). Authors should preserve raw experimental study data for at least one year after the publication of the paper and should submit this data if required by the editorial board.
B. Authors and authorship
An author is considered an individual who has made substantial intellectual contributions to a published study and whose authorship continues to have important academic, social, and financial implications. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, 2013) recommends the following criteria for authorship: (1) making substantial contributions to the conception, design, acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; (3) giving final approval to the version to be published; and (4) being accountable for all aspects of the work, ensuring that any questions about its accuracy or integrity are appropriately investigated and resolved. Authors should meet all four criteria. These criteria are applicable to those journals that distinguish authors from other contributors.
When the work is conducted by a large, multicenter group, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. When submitting a manuscript authored by a group, the corresponding author should clearly indicate the preferred citation and identify all individual authors as well as the group name. Journals usually list other members of the group in the acknowledgments. Acquiring funding, collecting data, or generally supervising the research group does not alone constitute authorship.
C. Prevention of duplicate submissions, duplicate publication, and copyright transfer agreement
Authors should not simultaneously submit the same manuscript, in the same or a different language, to more than one journal. Duplicate publication refers to the publication of a paper that overlaps substantially with one already published, without clear, visible reference to the previous publication. Manuscripts are only accepted for journal publication if they have not been published elsewhere. If an author(s) seeks duplicate or secondary publication for any reason (e.g., for readers of a different language), he or she should obtain approval from the editors in chief of both the first and second journals. In such a case, the author(s) must meet the conditions specified in Ann Intern Med 1997; 12:36–7 (e.g., the author(s) should comment on the duplicate or secondary publication in a footnote on the title page of the secondary version). Each author should sign the authorship responsibility and copyright transfer agreement form, attesting that he or she meets the authorship criteria. Authors are required to specify their contributions to the work described in the manuscript.
D. Protection of privacy, confidentiality, and written informed consent
The ICMJE (2013) recommends the following guidelines for the protection of privacy, confidentiality, and written informed consent: The rights of patients should not be infringed without written informed consent. Identifying details should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, or pedigrees unless they are essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or his or her parent or guardian) has provided written informed consent for publication. However, total anonymity can be difficult to achieve; therefore, informed consent should be obtained in the event that patient anonymity is compromised. For example, masking the eyes of patients in photographs does not adequately ensure anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, the author(s) should provide assurance that such changes do not distort scientific meaning, and the editors should take note of this. When informed consent has been obtained, it should be indicated in the published article.
E. Conflicts of interest
Conflicts of interest exist when an author (or the author’s institution), reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships that inappropriately influence his or her actions (such relationships are also known as dual commitments, competing interests, or competing loyalties). All authors should disclose any conflicts of interest: (1) financial relationships (e.g., employment, consultancies, stock ownership or options, honoraria, patents, paid expert testimony, etc.), (2) personal relationships and (3) academic competition. Conflicts of interest must be declared in a footnote on the title page or in the acknowledgments. In particular, all sources of funding for a study should be explicitly stated. Each author should certify the disclosure of any conflict of interest with his or her signature.
F. Registration of clinical research
Any research involving clinical trials should be registered with an appropriate national clinical trial registration site, such as http://cris. or other sites accredited by the World Health Organization or ICMJE.


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